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Assistant Professor
University of California, San Diego
Department of Political Science &
School of Global Policy and Strategy 
twitter: @aspaglayan

Varieties of Political Indoctrination in Education and the Media (V-Indoc) Dataset V1. The dataset is available here and the codebook here. The dataset should be cited as: Neundorf, Anja, Eugenia Nazrullaeva, Ksenia Northmore-Ball, Katerina Tertytchnaya, Wooseok Kim, Aaron Benavot, Patricia Bromley, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Philipp Lutscher, Kyle Marquardt, Agustina Paglayan, Dan Pemstein, Brigitte Seim, and Oskar Rydén. 2023. "Varieties of Political Indoctrination in Education and the Media (V-Indoc) Dataset V1." DEMED Project. URL:

Public-Sector Unions and the Size of Government. This dataset contains annual state-level data on student-teacher ratios, average teacher salaries, and per-pupil education expenditures, for all U.S. states during 1959-1990; decennial information on these variables since 1919; and information about the timing of state laws establishing mandatory collective bargaining with teachers. The database is available on AJPS Dataverse and should be cited as Paglayan, Agustina S. 2019. "Public-Sector Unions and the Size of Government." American Journal of Political Science 63(1): 21-36.

Primary School Enrollment Rates in Europe and Latin America, 1828-2015. Includes primary school enrollment rates (as a proportion of the population ages 5-14 years) for European and Latin American countries from 1828 to 2015. Download the dataset from APSR Dataverse and see the accompanying methodological document including the full list of sources used to create the dataset. The dataset should be cited as Paglayan, Agustina S. 2022. "Education of Indoctrination? The Violent Origins of Public School Systems in an Era of State-Building." American Political Science Review 116(4): 1242-1257. doi:

State Intervention in Primary Education. Includes the first year in which central governments in 33 European and Latin American countries began to fund primary schools, establish/ administer primary schools, require "universal" provision of schooling or require that every community provide schooling, establish compulsory primary education, establish that public primary education must be free at least for the poor, regulate requirements to become a teacher, provide teacher training for prospective teachers, and regulate the curriculum. The database is available on APSR Dataverse and in Online Appendix C of the Supplementary Materials. It should be cited as Paglayan, Agustina S. 2021. "The Non-Democratic Roots of Mass Education: Evidence from 200 Years." American Political Science Review 115(1): 179-198. doi:10.1017/S0003055420000647

Historical Education Quality Database. With financial support from UCSD, the Stanford Center for International Development, the Stanford Institute for Innovation in Developing Economies, and The Europe Center at Stanford University, I am leading an effort to construct a database that enables us to compare the quality of education provision across countries and over time. The database will contain historical country-level measures of student learning and of the content of education policies relevant for how much learning takes place in schools (e.g., curriculum policies and teacher training and recruitment policies). In the initial stages, the database will span Latin American and European countries from 1870 to the present. The dataset will be made available to the public upon its completion.

If you would like to contribute your expert knowledge of a country to this initiative, please contact me via email:

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